Human-animal interaction behaviours

Measures that shed light on the ways in which children/young people interact with animals

The measures/individual questions will be added to the table shortly. 

Name of measure/scale Reference and/or website

Children's Attitudes and Behaviours towards Animals (CABTA)

(Questionnaire for parents)

(21 items)

Guymer, M.E., Mellor, D., Luk, E.S.L. & Pearse, V. (2001). The development of a screening questionnaire for childhood treatment of cruelty to animals. Journal of Child Psychology & Psychiatry, 42(8), 1057-1063.

Section A: pet ownership

Section B: experiences, attitudes and behaviours towards animals (8 items)

Section C: cruelty to animals (13 items)

The Development of a Screening Questionnaire for Childhood Cruelty to Animals - Guymer - 2001 - Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry - Wiley Online Library

Children's Reported Humane Behaviour toward Animals (CRHBA)

(12 items)

Hawkins, R.D. and Williams, J.M (2016) Children’s Beliefs about Animal Minds (Child-BAM): Associations with positive and negative child-animal interactions. Anthrozoös, 29(3), 503-519.

Children’s Representations of Social Support (including pets)

(8 items)

McNicholas, J. and Collis, G.M. (2001). Children’s representations of pets in their social networks. Child Care Health Development 27(3), 279-294.

A story-based methodology.

Children's representations of pets in their social networks - McNicholas - 2001 - Child: Care, Health and Development - Wiley Online Library

Children’s Treatment of Animals Questionnaire (CTAQ)

(13 items)

Thompson, K.L. and Gullone, E. (2003). The children’s treatment of animals questionnaire (CTAQ): A psychometric investigation. Society & Animals 11(1), 1-15.

The Children'sTreatment of Animals Questionnaire (CTAQ): A Psychometric Investigation (

Cruelty to Animals Inventory (CAI)

9 theory-driven dimensions of cruelty

Dadds, M.R., Whiting, C., Bunn, P., Fraser, J.A., Charlson, J.H. & Pirola-Merlo, A. (2004). Measurement of cruelty in children: The cruelty to animals inventory. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology 32(3), 321-334.

Measurement of cruelty in children: The Cruelty to Animals Inventory - CORE Reader


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